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Variety Coin Register Number: VCR#1/DDO#1/DDR#1
Cross References: None Known
Description: Obverse: The variety shows very strong doubling of the obverse on REPVBLICA ITALINA, the laurel leaves in the wreath on Italias head, some hairlines, esp., at the top of the head, the inscription below the truncation, and the rim on the right side of the coin. Reverse: The reverse displays very strong doubling of much of the profile of the goddess Minerva, sprig in right hand, spear in the left hand, the denomination; L.100, the "R" Mint mark and rim on right side. The lack of any doubling of the date indicates that it was undoubtedly entered into the otherwise completed die in a separate operation independent of the conditions that caused the hub doubling to occur on the balance of the design.
Submitted by: Mark Fox of Michigan, email@example.com - comments welcome; listed September 2002.
Additional Comments: Hub doubling is possible due to a phenomenon known as work hardening. This causes the metal of the face of a die to become too hard and too brittle to allow a complete image to be sunk into the die in one operation without causing it to crack or shatter (during the multiple hubbing process). As a result, several impressions or hubbings are required to produce a die when using this process. (The multiple hubbing process was replaced in many world Mints recent years by the more modern "single squeeze" hubbing process. The process now employed in the Italian Mints is currently unknown to this writer). Between each hubbing the die is removed from the press and annealed (softened) thus allowing for another impression without shattering the die. If for some reason a partially finished die is reinstalled into a press for strengthening and the hub and die is improperly indexed, resulting in a misalignment of images, or if the hub varies in design from the one(s) used for earlier impressions -- hub doubling will result.
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